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Molloscum Contagiosum

Definition:
Molloscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the skin. It is caused by a virus that is a member of the poxvirus family. The molloscum virus is spread through skin-to-skin contact. In children, the areas most commonly affected are the face, neck, arms, and hands. In adults, this infection is considered a sexually transmitted disease, and the genitals and surrounding skin are the areas most commonly affected.

Causes:
Contact with the molloscum virus causes this skin infection. Skin lesions occur two weeks to two months after infection.

Risk Factors:
A risk factor is something that increases your chances of getting a disease or condition. Having skin-to-skin contact with an infected person is the primary risk factor for contracting molloscum contagiosum. Other risk factors include:
  • Indirect contact with an infected person through a swimming pool or bath or by sharing towels or clothing
  • Sexual contact with an infected person
  • Weakened immune system (e.g., HIV/AIDS) increases risk for getting disease, and causes more severe symptoms
Symptoms:
Skin lesions are the primary symptom of molloscum contagiosum. If you experience a similar skin lesion, don’t assume it is due to molloscum contagiosum, these lesions may be caused by other health conditions, and it is important that you see your physician.

Molloscum contagiosum skin lesions usually have the following characteristics:

  • Small, dome-shaped bumps with dimpling in center
  • Painless, but may be itchy or tender
  • At first appear pearly or flesh-colored and later may turn gray and drain
  • White or waxy substance in center of lesion
  • Usually multiple lesions in groups
  • Face, trunk, arms, and legs are common sites in children
  • Genitals, abdomen, and inner thigh are common sites in adults
  • Can last from several weeks to several years
Diagnosis:
Diagnosis of molloscum contagiosum is usually made based on the appearance of the lesions. Sometimes a biopsy will be taken to look at under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis. Your doctor may refer you to a dermatologist, a doctor who specializes in skin conditions.

Treatment:
Left untreated this disease usually resolves within six months. In untreated HIV infected patients, the lesions usually persist and spread indefinitely. Your doctor may recommend removal of the lesions in order to prevent spreading, or to avoid infecting others.

Treatment options include the following:

Surgical removal
The lesions can be removed by cutting them off the surface of the skin with a currette.

Chemical treatment
Similar to treating warts, chemicals are placed directly on the lesions to remove them. Common treatments include podophyllin, cantharidin, phenol, silver nitrate, trichloracetic acid, and iodine.

Cryotherapy
This method uses cold to freeze the lesions off of the skin. Liquid nitrogen, dry ice, or a substance called Frigiderm may be used for this treatment.

Prevention:
This disease is contagious. Take the following measures to reduce your risk of exposure to the virus:
  • Avoid contact with an infected person; this includes sharing towels, clothing, baths, and pools
  • Avoid sexual contact with an infected person

If you have the disease, reduce the risk of spread by not touching the lesions and washing your hands promptly if you do.

 
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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