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Neck Fracture
(Broken Neck, Cervical Fracture)

Definition:
A neck fracture is a break in one or more of the cervical bones (vertebrae in the neck). The vertebrae are the bones that make up the spine.

A neck fracture is very serious and can lead to paralysis or possibly death. A person with a neck injury should not be moved without competent medical care, which is needed immediately.

Causes:
A neck fracture is caused by severe trauma to the neck. Trauma includes:

  • Falls, such as from a horse or bike
  • Collisions, such as motorcycle or automobile
  • Diving into shallow water
  • Severe and sudden twist to the neck
  • Severe blows to the head or neck area
Risk Factors:
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease, condition, or injury. Risk factors for a neck fracture include:
  • Advancing age
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Osteoporosis
  • Certain contact sports, such as football or soccer
  • Violence
  • Not wearing your seatbelt when driving in a car
Symptoms:
Symptoms include:
  • Pain, which may or may not be severe
  • Swelling and bruising
  • Tenderness
  • Decreased feeling in the arms or legs
  • Muscle weakness or paralysis of the arms or legs
Diagnosis:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms, physical activity, and how the injury occurred, and will examine the injured area.

Tests may include:

X-rays – a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, especially bones. It is used to look for a break in the bone or a dislocation of the vertebra.

MRI Scan – a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the neck and back. An MRI provides cross-sectional images that allow the doctor to see if there is damage to the spinal cord.

CT Scan – a type of x-ray that uses computers to make pictures of structures inside the neck and back. It can be used to determine the extent of injury, specifically to see if the spinal cord is compressed.

Treatment:
Treatment depends on:
  • The severity of the fracture
  • If there is an associated dislocation
  • Which cervical bones are broken
  • Whether there is muscle weakness or paralysis

Treatment includes:

Immobilization
The first step is complete immobilization of the neck area.

Brace or Collar
A less serious neck fracture can be treated with a cervical brace or collar. It will need to be worn until the neck completely heals, usually 8-12 weeks. The doctor may recommend non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) or steroids to reduce pain and swelling.

Surgery
For a more severe fracture, you may need surgery to realign the bones. Your neck may be placed in traction prior to surgery. A metal plate with screws, or other methods of fixation, may be used to help hold the bones in place.

Exercises
When your doctor decides you are ready, start range-of-motion and strengthening exercises. A physical therapist should assist you with these exercises. Talk with your doctor before returning to any type of physical activity.

Healing Time
You may need to wear a neck splint, spinal brace, or surgical collar for many months. The period of rehabilitation can last many months and even years.

Living with Paralysis
A neck fracture can sometimes result in paralysis. This will require major life changes, involving your work, family, and social life. Depression and anger are a common response to paralysis. It is helpful to seek counseling and group support.

Prevention:
To help prevent a neck fracture:
  • Do not put yourself at risk for trauma to the cervical bones.
  • Always wear a seatbelt when driving in a car.
  • Wear proper padding and safety equipment when participating in sports or activities.
  • Never dive in the shallow end of a pool.
  • Never dive into water where you do not know the depth or what obstacles may be present.
  • Eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
  • Do weight-bearing exercises to build strong bones.
  • Build strong muscles to prevent falls and to stay active and agile.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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